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Basic Elements of Digital Signal Processing System

Most of the signals encountered in science and engineering are analog in nature. That is the signals are functions of a continuous variable, such as time or space, and usually take on values in a continuous range. Such signals may be processed directly by appropriate analog systems (such as filters or frequency analyzers) or frequency multipliers for the purpose of changing their characteristics or extracting some desired information. In such a case we say that the signal has been processed directly in its analog form, as illustrated in picture below.
 Both the input signal and the output signal are in analog form.

Digital signal processing provides an alternative method for processing the analog signal, as illustrated in figure below.


To perform the processing digitally, there is a need for an interface between the analog signal and the digital processor. This interface is called an analog-to-digital (A/D) converter. The output of the A?D converter is a digital signal that is appropriate as an input to the digital processor.

The digital signal processor may be a large programmable digital computer or a small microprocessor programmed to perform the desired operations on the input signal. It may also be a hardwired digital processor configured to perform a specified set of operations on the input signal. Programmable machines provide the flexibility to change the signal processing operations through a change in the software, whereas hardwired machines are difficult to reconfigure. Consequently, programmable signal processors are in very common use. On the other hand, when signal processing operations are well defined, a hardwired implementation of the operations can be optimized, resulting in a cheaper signal processor and, usually, one that runs faster than its programmable counterpart. In applications where the digital output from the digital signal processor is to be given to the user in analog form, such as in speech communications, we must provide another interface from the digital domain to analog domain. Such an interface is called a digital-to-analog (D/A) converter. Thus the signal is provided to the user in analog form.

However, there are other practical applications involving signal analysis, where the desired information is conveyed in digital form and no D/A converter is required. For example, in the digital processing of radar signals, the information extracted from the radar signal, such as the position of the aircraft and its speed, may simply be printed on paper. There is no need for a D/A converter in this case.

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